Safarli N.E. ogli. Smart Contract: The Concept, Legal Nature, Features of Conclusion and Execution

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15688/lc.jvolsu.2019.4.7

Nizami Elmar ogli Safarli, Postgraduate Student, Department of Civil and Private International Law, Volgograd State University, Prosp. Universitetsky, 100, 400062 Volgograd, Russian Federation, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4568-5774

Introduction: the paper is devoted to a new phenomenon in business activity in the conditions of IT development that contribute to the creation of secure contractual relations on the Internet on the basis of transactions executed through smart contracts. The author notes that the need for amendments that could fill the loopholes in the current legislation is obvious. And, first of all, it concerns Blockchain technology – the algorithm that mediates the safe development, conclusion and execution of smart contracts. Blockchain technology is considered in the paper as one of the safest means for concluding and executing smart contracts. The author argues that the study of the concept, legal nature and essence of smart contracts is relevant in the light of spreading their share in the total array of transactions in the world economy in conjunction with the changing domestic legislation governing the relevant sphere, as well as the international integration processes affecting the intensification of foreign economic activity of the Russian Federation. The smart contract concepts formulated by the Russian legislator in the process of upgrading the array of statutory regulation under conditions of economy digitalization are studied and compared. The features of conclusion and protection of the smart contract in the civil legislation of the Russian Federation are analyzed. In order to fully articulate the concept of the smart contract, reflecting its essence, functional purpose and legal nature, it is proposed to create a special law that would focus on the conclusion and implementation of “the smart contract” and the specification of the general norms of the civil code. At the same time, the norms of other special laws would supplement and correct the provisions fixed by this act depending on the sphere of managing and the legal regulation branch. The concept of the smart contract is formulated; its value for economic and contractual activity, and also the advantages and disadvantages of its application are established. The possible classifications of smart contracts are given.

Key words: business activity, contractual relations, electronic contracts, digital law, blockchain, cryptocurrency, smart contract, civil legislation.

Citation. Safarli N.E. ogli. Smart Contract: The Concept, Legal Nature, Features of Conclusion and Execution. Legal Concept, 2019, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 54-60. (in Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.15688/lc.jvolsu.2019.4.7

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